“…man’s mind was mathematical by nature and that knowledge and progress came from accurate observation” Maria Montessori, The Absorbent Mind, pg 169
We refer to Arithmetic when we talk of the 4 basic operations, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Arithmetic and mathematics do not mean the same thing, even though you can call arithmetic ‘maths’ (when discussing one of the operations), but mathematics is definitely not ‘arithmetic’.
Mathematics refers to problems involving signs, symbols and proofs i.e. algebra, calculus, geometry and trigonometry.